Difference between revisions of "32v 1m eqn"

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(New page: == NAME == eqn, neqn, checkeq - typeset mathematics == SYNOPSIS == eqn [ -dxy ] [ -pn ] [ -sn ] [ -fn ] [ file ] ... checkeq [ file ] ... == DESCRIPTION == _E_q_...)
 
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== NAME ==
 
== NAME ==
    eqn, neqn, checkeq  -  typeset mathematics
+
eqn, neqn, checkeq  -  typeset mathematics
  
 
== SYNOPSIS ==
 
== SYNOPSIS ==
    eqn [ -dxy ] [ -pn ] [ -sn ] [ -fn ] [ file ] ...
+
eqn [ -dxy ] [ -pn ] [ -sn ] [ -fn ] [ file ] ...
    checkeq [ file ] ...
+
checkeq [ file ] ...
  
 
== DESCRIPTION ==
 
== DESCRIPTION ==
    _E_q_n is a troff(1) preprocessor for typesetting mathematics
+
Eqn is a troff(1) preprocessor for typesetting mathematics on a Graphic Systems phototypesetter, neqn on terminals. Usage is almost always
    on a Graphic Systems phototypesetter, _n_e_q_n on terminals.
+
    Usage is almost always
+
 
+
          eqn file ... | troff
+
          neqn file ... | nroff
+
  
    If no files are specified, these programs reads from the
+
eqn file ... | troff
    standard input. A line beginning with `.EQ' marks the start
+
neqn file ... | nroff
    of an equation; the end of an equation is marked by a line
+
    beginning with `.EN'.  Neither of these lines is altered, so
+
    they may be defined in macro packages to get centering,
+
    numbering, etc.  It is also possible to set two characters
+
    as `delimiters'; subsequent text between delimiters is also
+
    treated as _e_q_n input.  Delimiters may be set to characters _x
+
    and _y with the command-line argument -d_x_y or (more commonly)
+
    with `delim _x_y' between .EQ and .EN.  The left and right
+
    delimiters may be identical.  Delimiters are turned off by
+
    `delim off'. All text that is neither between delimiters
+
    nor between .EQ and .EN is passed through untouched.
+
  
    The program _c_h_e_c_k_e_q reports missing or unbalanced delimiters
+
If no files are specified, these programs reads from the standard input.  A line beginning with '.EQ' marks the start of an equation; the end of an equation is marked by a line beginning with '.EN'.  Neither of these lines is altered, so they may be defined in macro packages to get centering, numbering, etc.  It is also possible to set two characters as 'delimiters'; subsequent text between delimiters is also treated as eqn input.  Delimiters may be set to characters x and y with the command-line argument -dxy or (more commonly) with 'delim xy' between .EQ and .EN.  The left and right delimiters may be identical.  Delimiters are turned off by 'delim off'.  All text that is neither between delimiters nor between .EQ and .EN is passed through untouched.
    and .EQ/.EN pairs.
+
  
    Tokens within _e_q_n are separated by spaces, tabs, newlines,
+
The program checkeq reports missing or unbalanced delimiters and .EQ/.EN pairs.
    braces, double quotes, tildes or circumflexes. Braces {}
+
    are used for grouping; generally speaking, anywhere a single
+
    character like _x could appear, a complicated construction
+
    enclosed in braces may be used instead. Tilde ~ represents
+
    a full space in the output, circumflex ^ half as much.
+
  
    Subscripts and superscripts are produced with the keywords
+
Tokens within eqn are separated by spaces, tabs, newlines, braces, double quotes, tildes or circumflexes.  Braces {} are used for grouping; generally speaking, anywhere a single character like x could appear, a complicated construction enclosed in braces may be used instead.  Tilde ~ represents a full space in the output, circumflex ^ half as much.
    sub and sup. Thus _x _s_u_b _i makes $x sub i$, _a _s_u_b _i _s_u_p _2
+
    produces $a sub i sup 2$, and _e _s_u_p {_x _s_u_p _2 + _y _s_u_p _2}
+
    gives $e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}$.
+
  
    Fractions are made with over: _a _o_v_e_r _b yields $a over b$.
+
Subscripts and superscripts are produced with the keywords sub and sup. Thus x sub i makes $x sub i$, a sub i sup 2 produces $a sub i sup 2$, and e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2} gives $e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}$.
 +
Fractions are made with over: a over b yields $a over b$.
  
    sqrt makes square roots: _1 _o_v_e_r _s_q_r_t {_a_x _s_u_p _2 +_b_x+_c}
+
sqrt makes square roots: 1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c} results in $1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c}$ .
    results in $1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c}$ .
+
  
    The keywords from and to introduce lower and upper limits on
+
The keywords from and to introduce lower and upper limits on arbitrary things: $lim from {n-> inf} sum from 0 to n x sub i$ is made with lim from {n-> inf } sum from 0 to n x sub i.  
    arbitrary things: $lim from {n-> inf} sum from 0 to n x sub
+
    i$ is made with _l_i_m _f_r_o_m {_n-> _i_n_f } _s_u_m _f_r_o_m _0 _t_o _n _x _s_u_b _i.
+
  
    Left and right brackets, braces, etc., of the right height
+
Left and right brackets, braces, etc., of the right height are made with left and right: left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1 produces $left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1$.  The right clause is optional.  Legal characters after left and right are braces, brackets, bars, c and f for ceiling and floor, and "" for nothing at all (useful for a right-side-only bracket).
    are made with left and right: _l_e_f_t [ _x _s_u_p _2 + _y _s_u_p _2 _o_v_e_r
+
    _a_l_p_h_a _r_i_g_h_t ] ~=~_1 produces $left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over
+
    alpha right ] ~=~1$.  The right clause is optional.  Legal
+
    characters after left and right are braces, brackets, bars,
+
    c and f for ceiling and floor, and "" for nothing at all
+
    (useful for a right-side-only bracket).
+
  
    Vertical piles of things are made with pile, lpile, cpile,
+
Vertical piles of things are made with pile, lpile, cpile, and rpile: pile {a above b above c} produces $pile {a above b above c}$.  There can be an arbitrary number of elements in a pile.  lpile left-justifies, pile and cpile center, with different vertical spacing, and rpile right justifies.
    and rpile: _p_i_l_e {_a _a_b_o_v_e _b _a_b_o_v_e _c} produces $pile {a above
+
    b above c}$.  There can be an arbitrary number of elements
+
    in a pile.  lpile left-justifies, pile and cpile center,
+
    with different vertical spacing, and rpile right justifies.
+
  
    Matrices are made with matrix: _m_a_t_r_i_x { _l_c_o_l { _x _s_u_b _i _a_b_o_v_e
+
Matrices are made with matrix: matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 } } produces $matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 } }$.  In addition, there is rcol for a right-justified column.
    _y _s_u_b _2 } _c_c_o_l { _1 _a_b_o_v_e _2 } } produces $matrix { lcol { x
+
    sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 } }$.  In addition,
+
    there is rcol for a right-justified column.
+
  
    Diacritical marks are made with dot, dotdot, hat, tilde,
+
Diacritical marks are made with dot, dotdot, hat, tilde, bar, vec, dyad, and under: x dot = f(t) bar is $x dot = f(t) bar$, y dotdot bar ~=~ n under is $y dotdot bar ~=~ n under$, and x vec ~=~ y dyad is $x vec ~=~ y dyad$.
    bar, vec, dyad, and under: _x _d_o_t = _f(_t) _b_a_r is $x dot = f(t)
+
    bar$, _y _d_o_t_d_o_t _b_a_r ~=~ _n _u_n_d_e_r is $y dotdot bar ~=~ n
+
    under$, and _x _v_e_c ~=~ _y _d_y_a_d is $x vec ~=~ y dyad$.
+
  
    Sizes and font can be changed with size _n or size +__n, roman,
+
Sizes and font can be changed with size n or size +n, roman, italic, bold, and font n. Size and fonts can be changed globally in a document by gsize n and gfont n, or by the command-line arguments -sn and -fn.
    italic, bold, and font _n. Size and fonts can be changed glo-
+
    bally in a document by gsize _n and gfont _n, or by the
+
    command-line arguments -s_n and -f_n.
+
  
    Normally subscripts and superscripts are reduced by 3 point
+
Normally subscripts and superscripts are reduced by 3 point sizes from the previous size; this may be changed by the command-line argument -pn.  
    sizes from the previous size; this may be changed by the
+
    command-line argument -p_n.
+
  
    Successive display arguments can be lined up.  Place mark
+
Successive display arguments can be lined up.  Place mark before the desired lineup point in the first equation; place lineup at the place that is to line up vertically in subsequent equations.
    before the desired lineup point in the first equation; place
+
    lineup at the place that is to line up vertically in subse-
+
    quent equations.
+
  
    Shorthands may be defined or existing keywords redefined
+
Shorthands may be defined or existing keywords redefined with define: define thing % replacement % defines a new token called thing which will be replaced by replacement whenever it appears thereafter.  The % may be any character that does not occur in replacement.
    with define: _d_e_f_i_n_e _t_h_i_n_g % _r_e_p_l_a_c_e_m_e_n_t % defines a new
+
    token called _t_h_i_n_g which will be replaced by _r_e_p_l_a_c_e_m_e_n_t
+
    whenever it appears thereafter.  The % may be any character
+
    that does not occur in _r_e_p_l_a_c_e_m_e_n_t.
+
  
    Keywords like _s_u_m ( sum ) _i_n_t ( int ) _i_n_f ( inf ) and short-
+
Keywords like sum ( sum ) int ( int ) inf ( inf ) and shorthands like >= (>=) -> (->), and != ( != ) are recognized. Greek letters are spelled out in the desired case, as in alpha or GAMMA. Mathematical words like sin, cos, log are made Roman automatically.  Troff(1) four-character escapes like \(bs () can be used anywhere.  Strings enclosed in double quotes "..." are passed through untouched; this permits
    hands like >= (>=) -> (->), and != ( != ) are recognized.
+
keywords to be entered as text, and can be used to communicate with troff when all else fails.
    Greek letters are spelled out in the desired case, as in
+
    _a_l_p_h_a or _G_A_M_M_A. Mathematical words like sin, cos, log are
+
    made Roman automatically.  _T_r_o_f_f(1) four-character escapes
+
    like \(bs () can be used anywhere.  Strings enclosed in dou-
+
    ble quotes "..." are passed through untouched; this permits
+
    keywords to be entered as text, and can be used to communi-
+
    cate with _t_r_o_f_f when all else fails.
+
  
 
== SEE ALSO ==
 
== SEE ALSO ==
    [[32v 1m troff|troff(1)]], [[32v 1m tbl|tbl(1)]], [[32v 7m ms|ms(7)]], [[32v 7m eqnchar|eqnchar(7)]]
+
[[32v 1m troff|troff(1)]], [[32v 1m tbl|tbl(1)]], [[32v 7m ms|ms(7)]], [[32v 7m eqnchar|eqnchar(7)]]
    B. W. Kernighan and L. L. Cherry, _T_y_p_e_s_e_t_t_i_n_g _M_a_t_h_e_m_a_t_i_c_s-
+
B. W. Kernighan and L. L. Cherry, Typesetting Mathematics-User's Guide
    _U_s_e_r'_s _G_u_i_d_e
+
J. F. Ossanna, NROFF/TROFF User's Manual
    J. F. Ossanna, _N_R_O_F_F/_T_R_O_F_F _U_s_e_r'_s _M_a_n_u_a_l
+
  
 
== BUGS ==
 
== BUGS ==
    To embolden digits, parens, etc., it is necessary to quote
+
To embolden digits, parens, etc., it is necessary to quote them, as in 'bold "12.3"'.
    them, as in `bold "12.3"'.
+
  
 
[[Category:32v man section 1]]
 
[[Category:32v man section 1]]

Latest revision as of 00:44, 23 September 2015

NAME

eqn, neqn, checkeq - typeset mathematics

SYNOPSIS

eqn [ -dxy ] [ -pn ] [ -sn ] [ -fn ] [ file ] ... checkeq [ file ] ...

DESCRIPTION

Eqn is a troff(1) preprocessor for typesetting mathematics on a Graphic Systems phototypesetter, neqn on terminals. Usage is almost always

eqn file ... | troff neqn file ... | nroff

If no files are specified, these programs reads from the standard input. A line beginning with '.EQ' marks the start of an equation; the end of an equation is marked by a line beginning with '.EN'. Neither of these lines is altered, so they may be defined in macro packages to get centering, numbering, etc. It is also possible to set two characters as 'delimiters'; subsequent text between delimiters is also treated as eqn input. Delimiters may be set to characters x and y with the command-line argument -dxy or (more commonly) with 'delim xy' between .EQ and .EN. The left and right delimiters may be identical. Delimiters are turned off by 'delim off'. All text that is neither between delimiters nor between .EQ and .EN is passed through untouched.

The program checkeq reports missing or unbalanced delimiters and .EQ/.EN pairs.

Tokens within eqn are separated by spaces, tabs, newlines, braces, double quotes, tildes or circumflexes. Braces {} are used for grouping; generally speaking, anywhere a single character like x could appear, a complicated construction enclosed in braces may be used instead. Tilde ~ represents a full space in the output, circumflex ^ half as much.

Subscripts and superscripts are produced with the keywords sub and sup. Thus x sub i makes $x sub i$, a sub i sup 2 produces $a sub i sup 2$, and e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2} gives $e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}$. Fractions are made with over: a over b yields $a over b$.

sqrt makes square roots: 1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c} results in $1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c}$ .

The keywords from and to introduce lower and upper limits on arbitrary things: $lim from {n-> inf} sum from 0 to n x sub i$ is made with lim from {n-> inf } sum from 0 to n x sub i.

Left and right brackets, braces, etc., of the right height are made with left and right: left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1 produces $left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1$. The right clause is optional. Legal characters after left and right are braces, brackets, bars, c and f for ceiling and floor, and "" for nothing at all (useful for a right-side-only bracket).

Vertical piles of things are made with pile, lpile, cpile, and rpile: pile {a above b above c} produces $pile {a above b above c}$. There can be an arbitrary number of elements in a pile. lpile left-justifies, pile and cpile center, with different vertical spacing, and rpile right justifies.

Matrices are made with matrix: matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 } } produces $matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 } }$. In addition, there is rcol for a right-justified column.

Diacritical marks are made with dot, dotdot, hat, tilde, bar, vec, dyad, and under: x dot = f(t) bar is $x dot = f(t) bar$, y dotdot bar ~=~ n under is $y dotdot bar ~=~ n under$, and x vec ~=~ y dyad is $x vec ~=~ y dyad$.

Sizes and font can be changed with size n or size +n, roman, italic, bold, and font n. Size and fonts can be changed globally in a document by gsize n and gfont n, or by the command-line arguments -sn and -fn.

Normally subscripts and superscripts are reduced by 3 point sizes from the previous size; this may be changed by the command-line argument -pn.

Successive display arguments can be lined up. Place mark before the desired lineup point in the first equation; place lineup at the place that is to line up vertically in subsequent equations.

Shorthands may be defined or existing keywords redefined with define: define thing % replacement % defines a new token called thing which will be replaced by replacement whenever it appears thereafter. The % may be any character that does not occur in replacement.

Keywords like sum ( sum ) int ( int ) inf ( inf ) and shorthands like >= (>=) -> (->), and != ( != ) are recognized. Greek letters are spelled out in the desired case, as in alpha or GAMMA. Mathematical words like sin, cos, log are made Roman automatically. Troff(1) four-character escapes like \(bs () can be used anywhere. Strings enclosed in double quotes "..." are passed through untouched; this permits keywords to be entered as text, and can be used to communicate with troff when all else fails.

SEE ALSO

troff(1), tbl(1), ms(7), eqnchar(7) B. W. Kernighan and L. L. Cherry, Typesetting Mathematics-User's Guide J. F. Ossanna, NROFF/TROFF User's Manual

BUGS

To embolden digits, parens, etc., it is necessary to quote them, as in 'bold "12.3"'.