Customizing VMS V1.0
UNDER CONSTRUCTION - NOT YET FINISHED!
- 1 Tools and Skills Needed for Customizing
- 1.1 The SOS Line Editor
- 1.2 Managing VMS Disk Devices, Directories, and Files
- 1.3 DCL Command Files
- 2 Customize VMS V1.0 Startup
- 3 Create and Customize a VMS V1.0 User Account
- 4 Related VMS Manuals
Tools and Skills Needed for Customizing
The SOS Line Editor
You need an editor to customize VMS.
Using an old fashioned editor is something that really needs getting used to.
VMS V1.0 includes SOS ("Son of Stopgap"), a "Line Editor", i.e. you work on single lines of your text, no simple scrolling as we're used to nowadays.
see: AA-D030B-TE VAX-VMS Primer
Creating a New File
You create a new file by calling the EDIT command followed be the name of your new file.
$ EDIT TEST.TXT Input: DMA0:[SYSMGR]TEST.TXT;1 00100
The editor echos device, directory, and file name of your new file and presents the first (empty) line with its line number (100). Now you just proceed als follows:
$ EDIT TEST.TXT Input: DMA0:[SYSMGR]TEST.TXT;1 00100 This is the first line of a new text file. 00200 Pressing [Enter] starts a new line. 00300 Using [ESC] switches to command mode. 00400 The command mode prompt is "*". 00500 At the command mode "W" writes the file to disk, 00600 and "E" ends the editor. *W [DMA0:[SYSMGR]TEST.TXT;1] *E [DMA0:[SYSMGR]TEST.TXT;1] (NO CHANGES) $
That's all (at least if you writing without typos and changes)!
Editing an Existing File
$ EDIT TEST.TXT Edit: DMA0:[SYSMGR]TEST.DAT;1 *
You are at the first line of your file.
To specify lines you use the marks:
- : (colon)
- . (dot)
- ^ (caret)
- * (asterix)
- line numbers, e.g.: 300
|Mark||Meaning||Example||Explanation of Example|
|:||Range||100:500||Lines 100 through 500|
|.||Current Line||.:500||Current line through 500|
|^||First Line||^:.||First line through current line|
|*||Last Line||.:*||Current line through last line|
To display lines 100 to 600 type: P100:600
*P100:600 00100 This is the first line of a new text file. 00200 Pressing [Enter] starts a new line. 00300 Using [ESC] switches to command mode. 00400 The command mode prompt is "*". 00500 At the command mode "W" writes the file to disk, 00600 and "E" ends the editor. *
- To display all lines of a file type: P^:*
- To print the first line of a file type: P^
- To print the last line of a file type: P*
Your new current line becomes the last line of your P(rint) command.
Setting the Current Line
To move in your file you set the current line number using the command: .<line number>, e.g.:
*.400 *P. 00400 The command mode prompt is "*". *
Insert after the current line: I.
Insert after e.g. line number 300: I300
Renumbering Lines: N
Delete current line: D.
Delete e.g. line number 300: D300
Replace current line: R.
Replace e.g. line number 300: R300
Replace a range of lines, e.g. 300:600: R300:600
Finding Line Contents
To find line contents following the current line use Fsearchtext<ESC><RETURN>, e.g.:
(You are at the bottom line, therefore:)
*Fmode$ String not found, search failed *
To search the whole text, go to the first line and start searching there:
*P^ 00100 This is the first line of a new text file. *Fmode$ 00300 Using [ESC] switches to command mode. *
F(ind) remembers the last string searched for, so F<RETURN> finds the next occurrence (if any):
*F 00400 The command mode prompt is "*". *F 00500 At the command mode "W" writes the file to disk, *F String not found, search failed *
Substitute all occurrences on a line use Ssearchtext<ESC>replacetext<ESC><RETURN>, e.g.
*p. 00500 At the command mode "W" writes the file to disk, *Sm$x$ 00500 At the coxxand xode "W" writes the file to disk, *
You can call the online SOS help with the HELP command:
*HELP SOS Help Package To print this entire package on the line printer, type the DCL command: PRINT LB:[1,2]SOS.HLP This package is made up of 11 modules (listed below). Each module in turn will now be printed at your terminal. To skip to the next module, discarding the rest of the one that is printing, type: <^O> (Type O while pressing CTRL.) To discard the rest of the Help package at any time, and to return to Edit-mode command level, type: <^C> (Type C while pressing CTRL.) The next time you issue a Help command, you can follow it with a colon and a number (H:n<CR>); SOS will print the Help package from module number n through the end. The modules are: 1. SOS Modes of Operation 2. Edit-Mode Commands -- Functions 3. Edit-Mode Commands -- Formats 4. Definitions for Edit-Mode Command Formats 5. Tag Options for Edit-Mode Commands 6. Alter-Mode Commands 7. Decide-Mode Commands 8. Shorthand Characters in Position Arguments 9. SOS Parameters 10. SOS Switches 11. Special Pattern-Matching Constructs Module 1: SOS Modes of Operation The underline (_) represents the next character position after the prompt. nnnnn is a 5-digit line number. Mode Prompt Use ------------------- --------- ------------------------------------ Edit *_ Edit: add, change text. Input nnnnn _ Type in lines of text. Alter nnnnn _ Edit within a line. Alter/insert (none) Insert text within Alter mode. Read-only R*_ Examine a file without changing it. Copy-file C*_ Search, copy from another file. Decide D*_ Decide case-by-case on substitutions. Decide Alter nnnnn _ (Submode.) Like Alter mode. Decide Alter/insert (none) (Submode.) Like Alter/insert. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- To Change from One Mode to Another: FROM mode TO mode You type: --------- --------- -------------------------- Edit Input Input or Replace command Alter Alter command Read-only /READONLY<CR> Copy-file Copy command with final /C Input Edit <AL> Alter Edit <CR> --------------------------------------------------- Module 2: Edit-Mode Commands -- Functions Command Function ------------------ ----------------------------------------- A Alter Enter Alter mode for intraline, char- acter-by-character editing. C Copy Copy a range of lines to another place within a file, or from another file. D Delete Delete a range of lines. E End End SOS, return to MCR. F Find Search for the occurrence of one or more specified strings of text. H Help List this Help file at the terminal. I Input Enter Input mode to insert lines of text. J Join Join two text lines into one line. K Kill Page Mark Delete a page mark. L List List a range of lines on the printer or to a file. M Mark Insert a page mark. N reNumber Renumber a range of lines. NA reNumber Renumber by adding the increment to each line in the range NP reNumber Renumber continuing to increment line numbers across page marks P Print Print a range of lines on the terminal. R Replace Delete a range of lines and enter Input mode. S Substitute Replace one or more text strings with other string(s) in a range of lines. T Transfer Copy a range of lines to a new location and delete the original lines. W Save World Write a new file containing all the changes made so far. X eXtend Enter Alter/insert mode to add text to the end of a line or a range of lines. . Move Position Reset the position of the current line. = Give Parameter Give the value of an SOS internal para- meter or switch. / Set Parameter Reset an SOS parameter or switch. @ Indirect File Execute the SOS commands contained in an indirect file. <CR> Print next line. <AL> Print previous line. ... [The rest is cut off here; see the full output at you SOS editor.]
Managing VMS Disk Devices, Directories, and Files
(Lots of citations from: AA-D023A-TE VAX-VMS Command Language User's Guide, pdf page 38 et seq.)
A full file specification consists of four parts:
- DECnet node name (default: local node)
- Disk (default: default disk)
- Directory (default: default directory)
All parts (except the file name) have default values, so that they can be omitted if the defaults apply.
When you log in, your defaults are set as specified in your login account data as a starting point. Then you can change the defaults for disk and directory with the SET DEFAULT command.
VMS Disk Devices
VMS disk device names have two or three letters and a number and end with a colon, e.g. DM1:, or DMA1:.
The first letter D stands for disk devices.
The second letter specifies the drive drive model:
- B = RP04/RP05/RP06 Disk pack drives
- L = RL01/RL02 Disk cartridge drives
- M = RK06/RK07 Disk cartridge drives
- R = RM03 Disk pack drive
The third letter (optional) is an A, B, C, or D, if any. You need it if there is more than one controller for a certain type of device.
The number counts the drives on an controller, beginning with 0.
- DMA0: - First RK06 or RK07 drive on the first RK611 controller
- DL3: - Fourth RL01 or RL02 drive on the first RL211 controller
- DBA2: - Third RP04/RP05/RP06 disk drive on the first RH780 controller
- DMB1: - Second RM03 disk drive on the second RH780 controller
VMS directory names are made of a 1- to 9-alphanumeric character string.
The top level directory on every disk has the fixed name 000000.
You must specify the top level directory only when you want to acess it; otherwise it can be left off and the tree of directories starts with the name of the first subdirectory below 000000.
Subdirectories have the format of ...NAME.NAME.NAME... where each name can consist of up to 9 alphanumeric characters; each name represents a directory level.
A directory can contain an entry for another (sub)directory; that directory can contain an entry for another directory, and so on. The maximum number of levels, including the first (or top) level directory, is eight. This structure constitutes a directory hierarchy.
The complete directory name must be enclosed in either square brackets (...[... and ...]...), or in angle brackets (...<... and ...>...).
VMS File Names, File Types, and Version Numbers
File names, file types, and version numbers uniquely identify files within directories.
A file name is a 1- to 9-character string name for a file. When you create a file, you can assign it a file name that is meaningful to you.
A file type is a 1- to 3-character string that usually identifies the file in terms of its contents.
The valid characters in file names and file types are A-Z and 0-9.
File types must be preceded with a period (.).
By convention, VAX/VMS uses a set of standard file types to identify various classifications of files, and to provide default file types in many commands. The following table lists these file types:
|B2S||Input source file for the PDP-11 BASIC-PLUS-2/VAX compiler|
|CMD||Compatibility mode indirect command file|
|COM|| Command procedure file to be executed with the @ (Execute Procedure) command, |
or to be submitted for batch execution with the SUBMIT command
|EXE||Executable program image|
|FOR||Input file containing source statements for the VAX-11 FORTRAN-IV-PLUS compiler|
|LIS|| Listing file created by a language compiler or assembler; |
default input file type for PRINT and TYPE commands
|LOG||Batch job output file|
|LST||Compatibility mode listing file|
|MAC||MACRO-11 source file|
|MAP||Memory allocation map created by the linker|
|MAR||VAX-11 MACRO source file|
|OBJ||Object file created by a language compiler or assembler|
|ODL||Overlay description file|
|OLB||Object module library|
|OPT||Options file for input to the LINK command|
|PAR||SYSGEN system paramter file|
|STB||Symbol table file created by the linker|
Version numbers are decimal numbers from 1 to 32767 that differentiate between versions of a file. When you update or modify a file and do not specify a version number for the output file, the system saves the original version for backup and increments the version number by 1.
Note, however, that on Files-11 Structure Level 2 disks, the file system deletes the lowest numbered versions of a file after more than approximately 60 versions of the file exist.
Version numbers must be preceded with a semicolon (;) or a period (.).
When the system displays file specifications, it generally displays a semicolon in front of the file version number.
- A Disk name, or:
- A disk name, and a directory path, or:
- A disk name, a directory path, and a file name
can all be substituted by a logical name (short: LOGICAL)
You can use logicals in place of the substituted components, e.g.
$ DIR SYS$SYSTEM: DIRECTORY DM0:[SYSEXE] 24-MAY-79 09:39 16USER.PAR;1 5. C 21-AUG-78 15:54 32USER.PAR;1 5. C 21-AUG-78 15:54 48USER.PAR;1 5. C 21-AUG-78 15:54 64USER.PAR;1 5. C 21-AUG-78 15:54 ... (output truncated) TOTAL OF 17526./17724. BLOCKS IN 104. FILES $
$ DIR DMA0:[SYSEXE] DIRECTORY DM0:[SYSEXE] 24-MAY-79 09:39 16USER.PAR;1 5. C 21-AUG-78 15:54 32USER.PAR;1 5. C 21-AUG-78 15:54 48USER.PAR;1 5. C 21-AUG-78 15:54 64USER.PAR;1 5. C 21-AUG-78 15:54 ... (output truncated) TOTAL OF 17526./17724. BLOCKS IN 104. FILES $
There are some system-predefined logicals for convenience; enter SHOW LOGICALS to see their definitions.
You can define your own logicals additionally (not covered here), see HELP DEFINE.
Logicals are usually used to access system files in their standard places.
DCL Command Files
You use DCL command files to group commands you want to be executed in sequence, either interactive, or as a batch job.
- LOGIN.COM = user login procedure
- STARTUP.COM = system startup procedure, part #1
- SYSTARTUP.COM = system startup procedure, part #2
- SHUTDOWN.COM = system shutdown procedure
Type DIR DM0:<*>*.COM to list command procedures of VMS V1.0.
Command files are text files of a certain format with the file type COM. They are started with the @ (Execute Procedure) command, e.g. @LOGIN.
You can omit the file type, which defaults to COM, on invocation.
Command lines begin with $ , whereas comment line begin with $!
Just place your commands in the command file like you would type them at the command prompt.
For details see: AA-D023A-TE VAX-VMS Command Language User's Guide
Customize VMS V1.0 Startup
You customize VMS V1.0 startup by editing SYS$DISK:[SYSMGR]SYSTARTUP.COM.
The file exists, but is empty on a new installation.
Place commands here that are to be executed every time the system is booted.
If you have a separate data disk you want to make available to all users, e.g. DMA1:, you could put the MOUNT/SYSTEM command in SYSTARTUP.COM:
$ MOUNT/SYSTEM DMA1: DATA
Remember to put the $ at the beginning of every line to be executed!
Create and Customize a VMS V1.0 User Account
Create a VMS V1.0 User Account
Run the AUTHORIZE utility to manage user accounts:
$ SET DEFAULT SYS$SYSTEM: $ RUN AUTHORIZE UAF>
Create a list of all user accounts yet existing:
UAF>LIST WRITING LISTING FILE LISTING FILE SYSUAF.LIS COMPLETE UAF>EXIT NO MODIFICATIONS MADE $ TYPE SYSUAF.LIS OWNER USERNAME UIC ACCOUNT PRIV PRI DEFAULT DIR DEFAULT [200,200] NOPRIV 4 [200,200] SYSTEM MANAGER SYSTEM [001,004] SYSTEM PRIV 4 [SYSMGR] FIELD SERVICE FIELD [001,010] FIELD NOPRIV 4 [SYSMAINT] SYSTEST-UETP SYSTEST [001,007] SYSTEST PRIV 4 [SYSTEST] $ RUN AUTHORIZE UAF>
Add a new account for a 'standard' user (one without special privileges):
UAF>ADD GUEST /OWNER=GUEST /PASSWORD=GUEST /UIC=[300,1]- _/DIRECTORY=[USERS.GUEST] /DEVICE=DM0: /LGICMD=LOGIN.COM USER RECORD SUCCESSFULLY ADDED UAF>SHOW GUEST USERNAME: GUEST OWNER: GUEST ACCOUNT: UIC: [300,001] DIRECTORY: [USERS.GUEST] DEVICE: DM0: LOGIN COMMAND FILE: LOGIN.COM LOGIN FLAGS: CLI: DCL PRCLM: 2 PRIO: 4 ASTLM: 10 BIOLM: 6 BYTLM: 4096 DIOLM: 6 FILLM: 20 TQELM: 10 WSDEFAULT: 150 WSQUOTA: 200 PGFLQUOTA: 40 PRIVILEGES: GRPNAM GROUP PRMCEB PRMMBX TMPMBX UAF>EXIT UAF UPDATES COMPLETED $
Explanation of ADD command details:
- GUEST: User account name to be used for login
- OWNER: User ASCII string that may, for example, be useful for billing purposes
- PASSWORD: User account password to be used for login
- UIC: User identification code; used internally to uniquely identify a user account. It consists of a group and a member number.
- - (dash): DCL command line continuation character
- DIRECTORY: Name of the default directory for the user account
- DEVICE: Name of the default device for the user account
- LGICMD: Name of the DCL command procedure that is executed automatically on login
Create user directory:
CREATE/DIRECTORY DM0:[USERS.GUEST] /OWNER=[300,1]
It is important to specify the new user's UIC as the owner of the directory (/OWNER=[300,1]).
Hence the new owner gets ownership of his home directory and can create files and subdirectories at will.
Test user account:
$ LOGOUT SYSTEM LOGGED OUT AT 26-MAY-1979 08:56:33.69 Username: GUEST Password: Welcome to VAX/VMS Version 1.00 $ SHOW DEFAULT DM0:[USERS.GUEST] $ DIR PIP -- no such file(s) $ DIR /FULL DM0:[USERs]GUEST.DIR DIRECTORY DM0:[USERS] 26-MAY-79 09:11 GUEST.DIR;1 (633,1) 1./4. C 26-MAY-79 08:53 [300,1] [RWE,RWE,RWE,RE] TOTAL OF 1./4. BLOCKS IN 1. FILE $ LOGOUT GUEST logged out at 26-MAY-1979 08:57:00.57
The login was successful, and the new user is put into his assigned home directory.
The home directory is empty (the result of DIR is PIP -- no such file(s)).
The home directory has got the correct owner [300,1] and rights [RWE,RWE,RWE,RE].
Rights are specified in four groups (left to right):
Each group has got assigned a set of zero to four rights:
- R = Read
- W = Write
- E = Execute
- D = Delete
For details refer to AA-D027A-TE VAX-VMS System Manager's Guide:
- PART II SETTING UP AND USING A SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS
Create a User Login Command Procedure
Log in as user GUEST and create a command procedure (text file) DMA0:[USERS.GUEST]LOGIN.COM using the SOS editor.
Put those commands in this file that are to executed automatically every time the user GUEST logs in.
Remember to put the $ at the beginning of every line to be executed!
Lines with $! at the beginning are comment lines.
See the following example:
$ EDIT LOGIN.COM Input: DMA0:[USERS.GUEST]LOGIN.COM;1 00100 $! LOGIN.COM FOR USER GUEST 00200 $! 00300 $! SET TERMINAL CHARACTERISTICS 00400 $ SET TERMINAL /VT52 00500 $ SET TERMINAL /UPPER 00600 $! 00700 $! WELCOME MESSAGE 00800 $ WRITE SYS$OUTPUT "" 00900 $ WRITE SYS$OUTPUT "WELCOME GUEST!" 01000 $ WRITE SYS$OUTPUT "" 01100 $ WRITE SYS$OUTPUT "THE TIME IS:" 01200 $ SHOW TIME 01300 $ WRITE SYS$OUTPUT "" 01400 $ WRITE SYS$OUTPUT "HAVE FUN USING VMS V1.0!" 01500 $ WRITE SYS$OUTPUT ""$ *W [DMA0:[USERS.GUEST]LOGIN.COM;1] *E [DMA0:[USERS.GUEST]LOGIN.COM;1] (NO CHANGES) $
Test the command procedure by logging out and in again.:
$ LOGOUT GUEST logged out at 26-MAY-1979 09:40:43.27 Username: GUEST Password: Welcome to VAX/VMS Version 1.00 WELCOME GUEST! THE TIME IS: 26-MAY-1979 09:40:50 HAVE FUN USING VMS V1.0! $
Related VMS Manuals
- AA-D027A-TE VAX-VMS System Manager's Guide