32v 1m ed

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ED(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual ED(1)


    ed - text editor


    ed [ - ] [ -x ] [ name ]


    _E_d is the standard text editor.
    If a _n_a_m_e argument is given, _e_d simulates an _e command (see
    below) on the named file; that is to say, the file is read
    into _e_d'_s buffer so that it can be edited.  If -x is
    present, an _x command is simulated first to handle an
    encrypted file.  The optional - suppresses the printing of
    character counts by _e, _r, and _w commands.
    _E_d operates on a copy of any file it is editing; changes
    made in the copy have no effect on the file until a _w
    (write) command is given.  The copy of the text being edited
    resides in a temporary file called the _b_u_f_f_e_r.
    Commands to _e_d have a simple and regular structure: zero or
    more _a_d_d_r_e_s_s_e_s followed by a single character _c_o_m_m_a_n_d, pos-
    sibly followed by parameters to the command.  These
    addresses specify one or more lines in the buffer.  Missing
    addresses are supplied by default.
    In general, only one command may appear on a line.  Certain
    commands allow the addition of text to the buffer.  While _e_d
    is accepting text, it is said to be in _i_n_p_u_t _m_o_d_e. In this
    mode, no commands are recognized; all input is merely col-
    lected.  Input mode is left by typing a period `.' alone at
    the beginning of a line.
    _E_d supports a limited form of _r_e_g_u_l_a_r _e_x_p_r_e_s_s_i_o_n notation.
    A regular expression specifies a set of strings of charac-
    ters.  A member of this set of strings is said to be _m_a_t_c_h_e_d
    by the regular expression.  In the following specification
    for regular expressions the word `character' means any char-
    acter but newline.
    1.   Any character except a special character matches
         itself.  Special characters are the regular expression
         delimiter plus \[.  and sometimes ^*$.
    2.   A . matches any character.
    3.   A \ followed by any character except a digit or ()
         matches that character.
    4.   A nonempty string _s bracketed [_s] (or [^_s]) matches any
         character in (or not in) _s. In _s, \ has no special
         meaning, and ] may only appear as the first letter.  A
         substring _a-_b, with _a and _b in ascending ASCII order,
         stands for the inclusive range of ASCII characters.
    5.   A regular expression of form 1-4 followed by * matches
         a sequence of 0 or more matches of the regular expres-
    6.   A regular expression, _x, of form 1-8, bracketed \(_x\)
         matches what _x matches.
    7.   A \ followed by a digit _n matches a copy of the string
         that the bracketed regular expression beginning with
         the _nth \( matched.
    8.   A regular expression of form 1-8, _x, followed by a reg-
         ular expression of form 1-7, _y matches a match for _x
         followed by a match for _y, with the _x match being as
         long as possible while still permitting a _y match.
    9.   A regular expression of form 1-8 preceded by ^ (or fol-
         lowed by $), is constrained to matches that begin at
         the left (or end at the right) end of a line.
    10.  A regular expression of form 1-9 picks out the longest
         among the leftmost matches in a line.
    11.  An empty regular expression stands for a copy of the
         last regular expression encountered.
    Regular expressions are used in addresses to specify lines
    and in one command (see _s below) to specify a portion of a
    line which is to be replaced.  If it is desired to use one
    of the regular expression metacharacters as an ordinary
    character, that character may be preceded by `\'.  This also
    applies to the character bounding the regular expression
    (often `/') and to `\' itself.
    To understand addressing in _e_d it is necessary to know that
    at any time there is a _c_u_r_r_e_n_t _l_i_n_e. Generally speaking, the
    current line is the last line affected by a command; how-
    ever, the exact effect on the current line is discussed
    under the description of the command.  Addresses are con-
    structed as follows.
    1.   The character `.' addresses the current line.
    2.   The character `$' addresses the last line of the
    3.   A decimal number _n addresses the _n-th line of the
    4.   `'_x' addresses the line marked with the name _x, which
         must be a lower-case letter.  Lines are marked with the
         _k command described below.
    5.   A regular expression enclosed in slashes `/' addresses
         the line found by searching forward from the current
         line and stopping at the first line containing a string
         that matches the regular expression.  If necessary the
         search wraps around to the beginning of the buffer.
    6.   A regular expression enclosed in queries `?' addresses
         the line found by searching backward from the current
         line and stopping at the first line containing a string
         that matches the regular expression.  If necessary the
         search wraps around to the end of the buffer.
    7.   An address followed by a plus sign `+' or a minus sign
         `-' followed by a decimal number specifies that address
         plus (resp. minus) the indicated number of lines.  The
         plus sign may be omitted.
    8.   If an address begins with `+' or `-' the addition or
         subtraction is taken with respect to the current line;
         e.g. `-5' is understood to mean `.-5'.
    9.   If an address ends with `+' or `-', then 1 is added
         (resp. subtracted).  As a consequence of this rule and
         rule 8, the address `-' refers to the line before the
         current line.  Moreover, trailing `+' and `-' charac-
         ters have cumulative effect, so `--' refers to the
         current line less 2.
    10.  To maintain compatibility with earlier versions of the
         editor, the character `^' in addresses is equivalent to
    Commands may require zero, one, or two addresses.  Commands
    which require no addresses regard the presence of an address
    as an error.  Commands which accept one or two addresses
    assume default addresses when insufficient are given.  If
    more addresses are given than such a command requires, the
    last one or two (depending on what is accepted) are used.
    Addresses are separated from each other typically by a comma
    `,'.  They may also be separated by a semicolon `;'.  In
    this case the current line `.' is set to the previous
    address before the next address is interpreted.  This
    feature can be used to determine the starting line for for-
    ward and backward searches (`/', `?').  The second address
    of any two-address sequence must correspond to a line fol-
    lowing the line corresponding to the first address.
    In the following list of _e_d commands, the default addresses
    are shown in parentheses.  The parentheses are not part of
    the address, but are used to show that the given addresses
    are the default.
    As mentioned, it is generally illegal for more than one com-
    mand to appear on a line.  However, most commands may be
    suffixed by `p' or by `l', in which case the current line is
    either printed or listed respectively in the way discussed
         The append command reads the given text and appends it
         after the addressed line.  `.' is left on the last line
         input, if there were any, otherwise at the addressed
         line.  Address `0' is legal for this command; text is
         placed at the beginning of the buffer.
    (., .)c
         The change command deletes the addressed lines, then
         accepts input text which replaces these lines.  `.' is
         left at the last line input; if there were none, it is
         left at the line preceding the deleted lines.
    (., .)d
         The delete command deletes the addressed lines from the
         buffer.  The line originally after the last line
         deleted becomes the current line; if the lines deleted
         were originally at the end, the new last line becomes
         the current line.
    e filename
         The edit command causes the entire contents of the
         buffer to be deleted, and then the named file to be
         read in.  `.' is set to the last line of the buffer.
         The number of characters read is typed.  `filename' is
         remembered for possible use as a default file name in a
         subsequent _r or _w command.  If `filename' is missing,
         the remembered name is used.
    E filename
         This command is the same as _e, except that no diagnos-
         tic results when no _w has been given since the last
         buffer alteration.
    f filename
         The filename command prints the currently remembered
         file name.  If `filename' is given, the currently
         remembered file name is changed to `filename'.
    (1,$)g/regular expression/command list
         In the global command, the first step is to mark every
         line which matches the given regular expression.  Then
         for every such line, the given command list is executed
         with `.' initially set to that line.  A single command
         or the first of multiple commands appears on the same
         line with the global command.  All lines of a multi-
         line list except the last line must be ended with `\'.
         _A, _i, and _c commands and associated input are permit-
         ted; the `.' terminating input mode may be omitted if
         it would be on the last line of the command list.  The
         commands _g and _v are not permitted in the command list.
         This command inserts the given text before the
         addressed line.  `.' is left at the last line input,
         or, if there were none, at the line before the
         addressed line.  This command differs from the _a com-
         mand only in the placement of the text.
    (., .+1)j
         This command joins the addressed lines into a single
         line; intermediate newlines simply disappear.  `.' is
         left at the resulting line.
    ( . )k_x
         The mark command marks the addressed line with name _x,
         which must be a lower-case letter.  The address form
         `'_x' then addresses this line.
    (., .)l
         The list command prints the addressed lines in an unam-
         biguous way: non-graphic characters are printed in
         two-digit octal, and long lines are folded.  The _l com-
         mand may be placed on the same line after any non-i/o
    (., .)m_a
         The move command repositions the addressed lines after
         the line addressed by _a.  The last of the moved lines
         becomes the current line.
    (., .)p
         The print command prints the addressed lines.  `.' is
         left at the last line printed.  The _p command may be
         placed on the same line after any non-i/o command.
    (., .)P
         This command is a synonym for _p.
    q    The quit command causes _e_d to exit.  No automatic write
         of a file is done.
    Q    This command is the same as _q, except that no diagnos-
         tic results when no _w has been given since the last
         buffer alteration.
    ($)r filename
         The read command reads in the given file after the
         addressed line.  If no file name is given, the remem-
         bered file name, if any, is used (see _e and _f com-
         mands).  The file name is remembered if there was no
         remembered file name already.  Address `0' is legal for
         _r and causes the file to be read at the beginning of
         the buffer.  If the read is successful, the number of
         characters read is typed.  `.' is left at the last line
         read in from the file.
    ( ., .)s/regular expression/replacement/       or,
    ( ., .)s/regular expression/replacement/g
         The substitute command searches each addressed line for
         an occurrence of the specified regular expression.  On
         each line in which a match is found, all matched
         strings are replaced by the replacement specified, if
         the global replacement indicator `g' appears after the
         command.  If the global indicator does not appear, only
         the first occurrence of the matched string is replaced.
         It is an error for the substitution to fail on all
         addressed lines.  Any character other than space or
         new-line may be used instead of `/' to delimit the reg-
         ular expression and the replacement.  `.' is left at
         the last line substituted.
         An ampersand `&' appearing in the replacement is
         replaced by the string matching the regular expression.
         The special meaning of `&' in this context may be
         suppressed by preceding it by `\'.  The characters `_\_n'
         where _n is a digit, are replaced by the text matched by
         the _n-th regular subexpression enclosed between `\('
         and `\)'.  When nested, parenthesized subexpressions
         are present, _n is determined by counting occurrences of
         `\(' starting from the left.
         Lines may be split by substituting new-line characters
         into them.  The new-line in the replacement string must
         be escaped by preceding it by `\'.
    (., .)t_a
         This command acts just like the _m command, except that
         a copy of the addressed lines is placed after address _a
         (which may be 0).  `.' is left on the last line of the
    (., .)u
         The undo command restores the preceding contents of the
         current line, which must be the last line in which a
         substitution was made.
    (1, $)v/regular expression/command list
         This command is the same as the global command _g except
         that the command list is executed _g with `.' initially
         set to every line _e_x_c_e_p_t those matching the regular
    (1, $)w filename
         The write command writes the addressed lines onto the
         given file.  If the file does not exist, it is created
         mode 666 (readable and writable by everyone).  The file
         name is remembered if there was no remembered file name
         already.  If no file name is given, the remembered file
         name, if any, is used (see _e and _f commands).  `.' is
         unchanged.  If the command is successful, the number of
         characters written is printed.
    (1,$)W filename
         This command is the same as _w, except that the
         addressed lines are appended to the file.
    x    A key string is demanded from the standard input.
         Later _r, _e and _w commands will encrypt and decrypt the
         text with this key by the algorithm of _c_r_y_p_t(1).  An
         explicitly empty key turns off encryption.
    ($)= The line number of the addressed line is typed.  `.' is
         unchanged by this command.
    !<shell command>
         The remainder of the line after the `!' is sent to
         _s_h(1) to be interpreted as a command.  `.' is
         An address alone on a line causes the addressed line to
         be printed.  A blank line alone is equivalent to
         `.+1p'; it is useful for stepping through text.
    If an interrupt signal (ASCII DEL) is sent, _e_d prints a `?'
    and returns to its command level.
    Some size limitations: 512 characters per line, 256 charac-
    ters per global command list, 64 characters per file name,
    and 128K characters in the temporary file.  The limit on the
    number of lines depends on the amount of core: each line
    takes 1 word.
    When reading a file, _e_d discards ASCII NUL characters and
    all characters after the last newline.  It refuses to read
    files containing non-ASCII characters.


    ed.hup: work is saved here if terminal hangs up


    B. W. Kernighan, _A _T_u_t_o_r_i_a_l _I_n_t_r_o_d_u_c_t_i_o_n _t_o _t_h_e _E_D _T_e_x_t _E_d_i_-
    B. W. Kernighan, _A_d_v_a_n_c_e_d _e_d_i_t_i_n_g _o_n _U_N_I_X
    sed(1), crypt(1)


    `?name' for inaccessible file; `?' for errors in commands;
    `?TMP' for temporary file overflow.
    To protect against throwing away valuable work, a _q or _e
    command is considered to be in error, unless a _w has
    occurred since the last buffer change.  A second _q or _e will
    be obeyed regardless.


    The _l command mishandles DEL.
    A ! command cannot be subject to a _g command.
    Because 0 is an illegal address for a _w command, it is not
    possible to create an empty file with _e_d.