Difference between revisions of "Ethernet"

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[[Image:10MegEthernetCable.jpg|300px|right|thumb|Original 10 Mbit/second Ethernet cable]]
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[[Image:3MegEthernetCable.jpg|300px|right|thumb|3 Mbit/second Experimental Ethernet cable]]
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'''Ethernet''' is a family of computer [[data network]]ing technologies commonly used in [[local area network]]s (LANs), metropolitan area networks (MANs) and [[wide area network]]s (WANs).
 +
 
 +
The first commercial version was a LAN introduced in 1980 by a consortium of [[Digital Equipment Corporation|DEC]], [[Intel]] and [[Xerox]] (hence its common label at the time, '''DIX Ethernet''',  from the initials of the partners); it was first openly standardized in 1983 as [[IEEE 802.3]].
  
'''Ethernet''' is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in [[local area network]]s (LANs), metropolitan area networks (MANs) and [[wide area network]]s (WANs). It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as [[IEEE 802.3]], and has since been refined to support higher [[bit rate]]s and longer link distances (but see 'Parameter contention' below).
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That one originally operated at 10 Mbits/second; it has since been refined to support higher [[bit rate]]s and longer link distances (but see 'Parameter contention' below). Follow-on versions have been produced at 100 and 1000 ('Gigabit Ethernet') Mbits/second.
  
The '''Experimental Ethernet''', done at [[Xerox PARC]], operated at 3 Mbits/second; the first commercial version, defined by a consortium of [[Digital Equipment Corporation|DEC]], [[Intel]] and [[Xerox]], operated at 10 Mbits/second. Follow-on versions have been produced at 100 and 1000 ('Gigabit Ethernet') Mbits/second.
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It was based on, and inspired by, the '''Experimental Ethernet''', done at [[Xerox PARC]] to connect [[Xerox Alto|Altos]]; that operated at 3 Mbits/second.
  
 
Over time, Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as [[token ring]], [[Fiber Distributed Data Interface|FDDI]] and [[ARCNET]].
 
Over time, Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as [[token ring]], [[Fiber Distributed Data Interface|FDDI]] and [[ARCNET]].
 +
 +
==DIX Ethernet details==
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 +
The 48-bit physical address of the DIX Ethernet is known as the [[Media Access Control Address]] (short form: 'MAC Address' or just: 'MAC'), sometimes 'Ethernet Address' or 'Hardware Address' (the last is rather misleading if not explicitly used related to Ethernet networking).
  
 
==Implementation==
 
==Implementation==
  
[[Image:3MegEthernetCable.jpg|300px|right|thumb|3 Mbit/second Ethernet cable]]
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[[Image:10MegEthernetCable.jpg|300px|right|thumb|Original 10 Mbit/second Ethernet cable]]
  
The first two generations of Ethernet (at PARC, and the original XDI Ethernet) used [[coaxial cable]], which has good high-frequency propagation and [[noise]] resistance (see images above, and at the top).
+
The first two generations of Ethernet (at PARC, and the original DIX Ethernet) used [[coaxial cable]]; used as a [[transmission line]], it had good high-frequency propagation and [[noise]] resistance (see images above, and at the top).
  
To connect a transceiver (or 'station') to the network, a 'vampire tap' was used. A special connector was clamped to the cable; this connector had a threaded hole in it, with the center of the hole aligned with the center conductor of the cable. A cutting tool was then screwed in, which cut a hole through the [[ground]] layer (the woven metallic [[conductor]] layer in the images). This was then withdrawn, and the transceiver was screwed in; the transceiver's connector had a sharp pin which penetrated the [[insulation]] around the center conductor and made contact with it.
+
To connect an [[Ethernet transceiver]] (or 'station') to the coaxial cable network, a 'vampire tap' was used. A special connector was clamped to the cable; this connector had a threaded hole in it, with the center of the hole aligned with the center [[conductor]] of the cable. A cutting tool was then screwed in, which cut a hole through the [[ground]] layer (the woven metallic [[conductor]] layer in the images). This was then withdrawn, and the transceiver was screwed in; the transceiver's connector had a sharp pin which penetrated the [[insulation]] around the center conductor and made contact with it.
  
For a variety of reasons, this technology (called 10BASE5) was not the best approach for wide-scale service: it was replaced first with i) 10BASE2 (so-called 'thin net'), a smaller diamater coaxial cable with standard coaxial connectors pre-fabricated onto it; and then with ii) twisted-pair (10Base-T), using [[RJ11]] connectors.
+
For a variety of reasons, this technology (called 10BASE5) was not the best approach for wide-scale service: it was replaced first with i) 10BASE2 (so-called 'thin net'), a smaller diameter coaxial cable with standard coaxial connectors pre-fabricated onto it; and then with ii) twisted-pair (10Base-T), using [[RJ11]] connectors.
  
 
==Architecture==
 
==Architecture==
  
Originally, Ethernet was a [[Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection]] (CSMA-CD) bus (i.e. a shared broadcast channel on which all stations can hear any station which is transmitting).  
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Originally, Ethernet was a [[Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection]] (CSMA-CD) [[bus]] (i.e. a shared [[broadcast]] channel on which all stations can hear any station which is transmitting).  
  
 
===Parameter contention===
 
===Parameter contention===
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(I.e. the second station's message will only ''start'' to arrive at the first ''after'' the first's message has finished being sent, so no collision is detected there; and similarly at the second station.)
 
(I.e. the second station's message will only ''start'' to arrive at the first ''after'' the first's message has finished being sent, so no collision is detected there; and similarly at the second station.)
  
To prevent this happening, the 10 Mbits/second spec called for a minimum message size, and a maximum physical size, so that one station's message (in the situation above) was ''guaranteed'' to start arriving at the other station before the other station finished its message - i..e. guaranteeing a detectable (at the transmitter) collision.
+
To prevent this happening, the 10 Mbits/second spec called for a minimum message size, and a maximum physical size, so that one station's message (in the situation above) was ''guaranteed'' to start arriving at the other station before the other station finished its message - i.e. guaranteeing a detectable (at the transmitters) collision.
  
 
However, this produces an unfortunate conflict between two parameters which it is desirable to increase; the speed, and maximum network size. If the network is made larger, then to guarantee that collisions will be detected, either i) the minimum message size must be made larger, or ii) the speed must be ''slowed''. Similarly, if the speed is raised, to keep the collision detection guarantee, either i) the minimum message size must be increased, or ii) the maximum size of the network must be ''reduced''.
 
However, this produces an unfortunate conflict between two parameters which it is desirable to increase; the speed, and maximum network size. If the network is made larger, then to guarantee that collisions will be detected, either i) the minimum message size must be made larger, or ii) the speed must be ''slowed''. Similarly, if the speed is raised, to keep the collision detection guarantee, either i) the minimum message size must be increased, or ii) the maximum size of the network must be ''reduced''.
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==Contemporary practise==
 
==Contemporary practise==
  
Along with the issue above, the [[analog]] engineering of a very high speed, long, bus presents significant challenges. (This was one of the reasons for the initial popularity of rings, which are constructed of a number of point-point links, inherently a simpler analog problem domain - and one susceptible to easy conversion to [[fiber optic]] technology.)
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Along with the issue above, the [[analog]] engineering of a very high speed, long, bus presents significant challenges. (This was one of the reasons for the initial popularity of rings, which are constructed of a number of [[point-point link]]s, inherently a simpler analog problem domain - and one susceptible to easy conversion to [[fiber optic]] technology.)
  
 
This had led to a gradual conversion to a wholly different kind of network structure in the internals of the network, where the attached stations cannot see it.
 
This had led to a gradual conversion to a wholly different kind of network structure in the internals of the network, where the attached stations cannot see it.
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As in many similar cases, only the [[interface]] between the two parts (the station and the network) has been retained; the equipment on either side has been free to transform internally, and on one side it has done so in a major way.
 
As in many similar cases, only the [[interface]] between the two parts (the station and the network) has been retained; the equipment on either side has been free to transform internally, and on one side it has done so in a major way.
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==See also==
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* [[Ethernet transceiver]]
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
  
 
* [http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/xerox/parc/techReports/CSL-75-7_Ethernet_Distributed_Packet_Switching_for_Local_Computer_Networks.pdf Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks] - paper describing the original Experimental Ethernet
 
* [http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/xerox/parc/techReports/CSL-75-7_Ethernet_Distributed_Packet_Switching_for_Local_Computer_Networks.pdf Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks] - paper describing the original Experimental Ethernet
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* [https://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/X124.82E Experimental Ethernet transceiver] - at the [[Computer History Museum|CHM]], including a clamped-on vampire tap housing
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* [https://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/networking/19/381/2019 Alto Ethernet printed circuit board] - at the CHM
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* [http://gordonbell.azurewebsites.net/Digital/Ethernet%20Blue%20Book.pdf The Ethernet - A Local Area Network: Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specifications]
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* [http://gordonbell.azurewebsites.net/Ethernet_Seminar_Announcement_NYC_820210.PDF Ethernet Press Seminar] - announcement
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* [http://gordonbell.azurewebsites.net/Digital/Ethernet_announcement_820210c.pdf Why Digital is Committed to Ethernet for the Fifth Generation ] - Bell's seminar
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* [http://www.mattmillman.com/projects/10base5 Building a 10BASE5 "Thick Ethernet" network] - A very good article about combining old and new Ethernet networking technology
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* [https://www.ibm.com/docs/en/zos/2.2.0?topic=internetworking-ethernet-dix-v2 Ethernet — DIX V2]
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* [https://lostintransit.se/2012/06/06/the-history-of-ethernet-dix-vs-802-3/ The history of Ethernet – DIX vs 802.3]
  
 
[[Category: Networking]]
 
[[Category: Networking]]
 
[[Category: Xerox]]
 
[[Category: Xerox]]

Latest revision as of 00:13, 7 August 2022

3 Mbit/second Experimental Ethernet cable

Ethernet is a family of computer data networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LANs), metropolitan area networks (MANs) and wide area networks (WANs).

The first commercial version was a LAN introduced in 1980 by a consortium of DEC, Intel and Xerox (hence its common label at the time, DIX Ethernet, from the initials of the partners); it was first openly standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3.

That one originally operated at 10 Mbits/second; it has since been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances (but see 'Parameter contention' below). Follow-on versions have been produced at 100 and 1000 ('Gigabit Ethernet') Mbits/second.

It was based on, and inspired by, the Experimental Ethernet, done at Xerox PARC to connect Altos; that operated at 3 Mbits/second.

Over time, Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as token ring, FDDI and ARCNET.

DIX Ethernet details

The 48-bit physical address of the DIX Ethernet is known as the Media Access Control Address (short form: 'MAC Address' or just: 'MAC'), sometimes 'Ethernet Address' or 'Hardware Address' (the last is rather misleading if not explicitly used related to Ethernet networking).

Implementation

Original 10 Mbit/second Ethernet cable

The first two generations of Ethernet (at PARC, and the original DIX Ethernet) used coaxial cable; used as a transmission line, it had good high-frequency propagation and noise resistance (see images above, and at the top).

To connect an Ethernet transceiver (or 'station') to the coaxial cable network, a 'vampire tap' was used. A special connector was clamped to the cable; this connector had a threaded hole in it, with the center of the hole aligned with the center conductor of the cable. A cutting tool was then screwed in, which cut a hole through the ground layer (the woven metallic conductor layer in the images). This was then withdrawn, and the transceiver was screwed in; the transceiver's connector had a sharp pin which penetrated the insulation around the center conductor and made contact with it.

For a variety of reasons, this technology (called 10BASE5) was not the best approach for wide-scale service: it was replaced first with i) 10BASE2 (so-called 'thin net'), a smaller diameter coaxial cable with standard coaxial connectors pre-fabricated onto it; and then with ii) twisted-pair (10Base-T), using RJ11 connectors.

Architecture

Originally, Ethernet was a Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA-CD) bus (i.e. a shared broadcast channel on which all stations can hear any station which is transmitting).

Parameter contention

Two of the critical parameters for an Ethernet are the network's physical size (and hence end-end delay), and its speed. This is because if the network is large enough, and the bit rate high enough, it is possible for two stations, at opposite ends of the network, to each send a short message which appears to each of them to have been successfully transmitted, but which produces a collision in the middle of the network between them.

(I.e. the second station's message will only start to arrive at the first after the first's message has finished being sent, so no collision is detected there; and similarly at the second station.)

To prevent this happening, the 10 Mbits/second spec called for a minimum message size, and a maximum physical size, so that one station's message (in the situation above) was guaranteed to start arriving at the other station before the other station finished its message - i.e. guaranteeing a detectable (at the transmitters) collision.

However, this produces an unfortunate conflict between two parameters which it is desirable to increase; the speed, and maximum network size. If the network is made larger, then to guarantee that collisions will be detected, either i) the minimum message size must be made larger, or ii) the speed must be slowed. Similarly, if the speed is raised, to keep the collision detection guarantee, either i) the minimum message size must be increased, or ii) the maximum size of the network must be reduced.

Since making the minimum message size larger is generally undesirable (it will reduce the network's maximum throughput in messages per unit time), that fix is generally undesirable, leaving speed and network size as competing parameters.

Contemporary practise

Along with the issue above, the analog engineering of a very high speed, long, bus presents significant challenges. (This was one of the reasons for the initial popularity of rings, which are constructed of a number of point-point links, inherently a simpler analog problem domain - and one susceptible to easy conversion to fiber optic technology.)

This had led to a gradual conversion to a wholly different kind of network structure in the internals of the network, where the attached stations cannot see it.

The 'network' overall has been reduced to a series of two-node physical 'Ethernets', in which one end is the station, and the other is a 'hub' - a packet switch which acts as a bridge. A number of these hubs may be connected together (usually by two-node 'Ethernet' links). Thus, a typical 'Ethernet' is no longer a CSMA-CD bus, but rather a classic packet-switching network, with the hubs as the packet switches.

As in many similar cases, only the interface between the two parts (the station and the network) has been retained; the equipment on either side has been free to transform internally, and on one side it has done so in a major way.

See also

External links