32v 1m ls

From Computer History Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

LS(1) UNIX Programmer's Manual LS(1)


    ls  -  list contents of directory


    ls [ -ltasdrucifg ] name ...


    For each directory argument, _l_s lists the contents of the
    directory; for each file argument, _l_s repeats its name and
    any other information requested.  The output is sorted
    alphabetically by default.  When no argument is given, the
    current directory is listed.  When several arguments are
    given, the arguments are first sorted appropriately, but
    file arguments appear before directories and their contents.
    There are several options:
    -l   List in long format, giving mode, number of links,
         owner, size in bytes, and time of last modification for
         each file.  (See below.) If the file is a special file
         the size field will instead contain the major and minor
         device numbers.
    -t   Sort by time modified (latest first) instead of by
         name, as is normal.
    -a   List all entries; usually `.' and `..' are suppressed.
    -s   Give size in blocks, including indirect blocks, for
         each entry.
    -d   If argument is a directory, list only its name, not its
         contents (mostly used with -l to get status on direc-
    -r   Reverse the order of sort to get reverse alphabetic or
         oldest first as appropriate.
    -u   Use time of last access instead of last modification
         for sorting (-t) or printing (-l).
    -c   Use time of last modification to inode (mode, etc.)
         instead of last modification to file for sorting (-t)
         or printing (-l).
    -i   Print i-number in first column of the report for each
         file listed.
    -f   Force each argument to be interpreted as a directory
         and list the name found in each slot.  This option
         turns off -l, -t, -s, and -r, and turns on -a; the
         order is the order in which entries appear in the
    -g   Give group ID instead of owner ID in long listing.
    The mode printed under the -l option contains 11 characters
    which are interpreted as follows: the first character is
    d  if the entry is a directory;
    b  if the entry is a block-type special file;
    c  if the entry is a character-type special file;
    -  if the entry is a plain file.
    The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three
    bits each.  The first set refers to owner permissions; the
    next to permissions to others in the same user-group; and
    the last to all others.  Within each set the three charac-
    ters indicate permission respectively to read, to write, or
    to execute the file as a program.  For a directory, `exe-
    cute' permission is interpreted to mean permission to search
    the directory for a specified file.  The permissions are
    indicated as follows:
    r  if the file is readable;
    w  if the file is writable;
    x  if the file is executable;
    -  if the indicated permission is not granted.
    The group-execute permission character is given as s if the
    file has set-group-ID mode; likewise the user-execute per-
    mission character is given as s if the file has set-user-ID
    The last character of the mode (normally `x' or `-') is t if
    the 1000 bit of the mode is on.  See _c_h_m_o_d(1) for the mean-
    ing of this mode.
    When the sizes of the files in a directory are listed, a
    total count of blocks, including indirect blocks is printed.


    /etc/passwd to get user ID's for `ls -l'.
    /etc/group to get group ID's for `ls -g'.