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CIIR, "The Central Institute of Industrial Research", or just "SI" (Sentralinstituttet) in Norwegian, established 1949 in Oslo, Norway.

Not to be outdone, NTH in Trondheim, Norway (Norsk Teknisk Høyskole / Norwegian Institute of Technology, now merged into the University of Trondheim) established SINTEF, "The Society for Industrial and Technological Research at NTH" in 1950.

CIIR is more known as just SI. In 1993 SI and SINTEF merged under the name SINTEF (although SINTEF now exists in various forms as SINTEF Petroleum Research and others).

SI and SINTEF were both involved in the development of both hardware and software for Norsk Data, the database system SIBAS was developed at SI/CIIR, for example, and the first virtual memory system for the NORD-1 was developed at SINTEF. SINTEF also developed the first version of SINTRAN, SINTRAN I.