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TOPS-10 was DEC's operating system for the early PDP-10 computers. It was descended from the 'Monitor' OS used on the PDP-6. It provided both batch and time-sharing capabilities.

TOPS-10 allowed programs to be separated into data and object code segments; the latter could be shared by all processes running that program. Once support for virtual memory was added to the hardware (in the KI10), TOPS-10 added support for that.