Lincoln Laboratory

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Lincoln Laboratory, while formally a part of MIT, is effectively an independent research organization.

It is in some sense a descendant of the Radiation Laboratory, set up at MIT in WWII to do work on radar (although the only connection is that some people from the Rad Lab later worked at Lincoln). Lincoln was set up in 1951 to help build the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment, the US's first air defense system. It has been involved in research work useful for national defense, and more recently, other national priorities as well, ever since.

The Memory Test Computer was built there in 1952, by Group 62 and Group 63, to test the first core memory, intended for use in Whirlwind (which was used for a prototype of SAGE). The TX-0 computer was built at Lincoln Laboratory in 1955, to try out using transistors to build a computer. It was later followed by the TX-2, which was the host for Sketchpad.

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